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San Francisco Redevelopment Agency World Bank Urban Development Web site

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Term Papers on Urban Planning

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Urban Land Institute Case Studie

Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA)

Spatial Planning
The impact of urban and rural development on spatial quality in the Netherlands has increased in recent years. It brings pressure to bear on the economy and the environment, but also on culture, including architecture and the design of areas and landscapes. The Dutch goverment aims to realise spatial quality by integrating and strengthening economic, ecological and sociocultural alues in spatial planning.
The Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture focuses on cul tural features in spatial planning by increasing the involvement of the design disciplines in spatial planning and by bringing cultural history to bear on development. It is desirable to involve the design and cultural history disciplines at an early stage in the development process because this will help ensure that the thought processes involved in spatial planning issues and processes are more complete and integrated and thus reinforce the integration of cultural and user value with value for the future. The government wishes first and foremost to emphasise that chieving spatial quality is a cultural exercise.
The main objective of the Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture is to improve the spatial quality of our buildings, illages, cities and landscapes. The action programme combines architecture policy and the Belvedere policy (aimed at strengthening the influence cultural history has on spatial planning) and is a step towards increasing the volume and consistency of cultural policy input in spatial development policy. Linking the architecture and Belvedere policies in a single programme will reinforce the basis for cultural objectives in spatial policy and broaden interministerial cooperation.

architecture policy and Belvedere policy

The processes of maintaining and developing spatial quality are in extricably linked. The connection between cultural policy and spatial policy in the Netherlands has been shaped in past decades by three consecutive architecture policy documents and by the Belvedere Policy Document. The Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture brings together the implementation of both the architecture policy and the Belvedere policy. The Programme builds on the successes and lessons of the past years, rather than introducing new aims and policy objectives. The emphasis is on implementing policy and on relating it to specific spatial evelopment issues. On that basis, the government wishes to join up more closely the elements of its cultural policy that generate spatial quality.
Architecture policy
The Netherlands has pursued an autonomous architecture policy since the beginning of the 1990s, with the aim of fostering spatial quality. The first architecture policy document, Space for Architecture (1991), signed by the Ministries of Health, Welfare & Cultural Affairs (now Education, Culture & Science) and Housing, Spatial Planning & the Environment, addresses commissioning practices and improving the architectural climate. This policy document led to the establishment of a cultural infrastructure, with institutions such as the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAI), the Netherlands Architecture Fund and supported the establishment and activities of local architecture centres. The second policy document, Architecture of Space (1996),
broadened the policy to include urban development, landscape and infrastructure. This policy document was signed by the Ministries of Education, Culture & Science (OCW); Housing, Spatial Planning & the Environment (VROM); Agriculture, Nature Management & Fisheries (now Agriculture, Nature & Food Quality) (LNV); and Transport, Public Works& Water Management (V&W). The third policy document, Shaping the Netherlands (architecture policy 2001-2004), built on Architecture of
Space. The government launched several activities to promote archi- tectonic and spatial quality on every scale. The activities are meant to increase the input of the design disciplines in spatial and archi- tectonic projects and create favourable conditions for other public authorities and stakeholders, whether private or public. A new element introduced in the third architecture policy document is the series of ten Major Projects, with which the government sets out its own role and contribution under the motto “practise what you preach”. Each of the ministries involved – VROM, OCW, LNV, V&W and Economic Affairs (EZ)– adopted at least one project and the Office of the Chief Government Architect guaranteed architectonic quality and early-stage involvement
of design disciplines. A number of these Major Projects are continued as model projects in the Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture.
European Spatial Planning

In 1999, a document called the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) was signed by the ministers responsible for regional planning in the EU member states. Although the ESDP has no binding status, and the European Union has no formal authority for spatial planning, the ESDP has influenced spatial planning policy in European regions and member states, and placed the coordination of EU sectoral policies on the political agenda.

At the European level, the term territorial cohesion is becoming more widely used and is for example mentioned in the draft EU Treaty (Constitution) as a shared competency of the European Union; it is also included in the Treaty of Lisbon. The term was defined in a "scoping document" in Rotterdam in late 2004 and is being elaborated further using empirical data from the ESPON programme in a document entitledThe Territorial State and Perspectives of the European Union. At the minister's conference in May 2007 in Leipzig, a political document called the "Territorial Agenda" was signed to continue the process begun in Rotterdam.
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Community Development


Architect – Engineer - Planner

18501 Vidora Dr. #A Rowland Hts, Ca 91748


Architect – Engineer - Planner

18501 Vidora Dr. #A Rowland Hts, Ca 91748

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